Muck Raking: Waste and Animality in Upton Sinclair, by Daniel Bowman

The year 1895 saw the publication of the first ever automobile periodical in the United States – The Horseless Age.  Appearing five years before U.S. horse populations peaked, it was made clear from the onset that the car was intended to be a ‘substitute’ for the horse.  As a statement from editor E. P. Ingersoll makes clear, however, it was not increased speed that was initially desired so much as increased sanitation.  If Henry Ford had asked people what they wanted they would probably have said cleaner horses.  In 1880, New York City…continue reading →